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22 September 2018 (programming haskell fpga electronics retrochallenge clash)

For most of this week, it seemed I will have to throw in the towel. As I mentioned in my previous entry last Saturday, I ran into what at first seemed like a CλaSH bug. However, further investigation showed that the error message was actually pointing at an internal bug in the Xilinx ISE synthesizer. The same generated VHDL didn't cause any problems when fed into the Yosys open source synthesizer, Altera Quartus, or the newer version of Xilinx Vivado. But the Papilio Pro I'm using is based on the Spartan 6 FPGA, which is not supported by the newer Xilinx tools, so I am stuck with ISE 14.7 from 2013. So the conclusion is, just like all other closed-source proprietary software from FPGA vendors, the Xilinx ISE is simply a piece of shit that falls over under its own weight on perfectly valid VHDL.

I was thinking of ordering a new FPGA board, but I only have until next Wednesday to finish this (I won't be able to put in any work on the last Retrochallenge weekend), so it's not even a given it would get here in time. Also, I'd like to do a bit more research on what board I should get -- on one hand, both Altera and Xilinx have nice, more modern dev boards with good IO ports for my retro-computing-oriented needs, but on the other hand, it feels a bit like throwing good money after bad, since these would still be programmed with proprietary shitty software, with no way forward when (not if!) they break.

Then there's Lattice's ICE40 line which is fully supported by the open source toolchain IceStorm, but the largest ICE40 is still quite small compared to the Spartan 7 or the Cyclone V series; not to mention that even the nicest ICE40 board I could find doesn't have a USB connector on board, so you have to play around with an Arduino and plug jumper wires into this weird connector to get anything working. Also, while I'm ranting, of course the Lattice ICE40 open source toolchain is not from Lattice themselves; instead, its bitstream format had to be reverse-engineered by awesome free software hackers

So anyway, I had a perfectly functioning board betrayed by its software toolchain. I tried some desparate ideas like generating Verilog instead of VHDL or getting rid of the unguarded block statements, but nothing made any difference. Then Thursday night I had an even wilder idea. If the Xilinx ISE is crashing because the generated VHDL is triggering some weird corner case in the synthesizer, then maybe using the same ISE version, but changing the target FPGA model, would get over the hurdle? And that's when I remembered I still have my first ever FPGA board: the Papilio One based on the Spartan 3E. Luckily, the Spartan 3-series is also supported by the 14 series ISE, so the same toolchain can serve both boards.

On Friday morning, I did the necessary changes to my code to target the Papilio One. The clock generator is different between the models, so I needed to replace that; the other difference was that the Spartan 3 doesn't seem to have wide enough blocks for 64-bit arithmetic. This shouldn't be a problem for the CHIP-8, but CλaSH generates code that converts everything into 64 bits. I initially overcame that by post-processing CλaSH's output with sed, but then I discovered that there is a flag -fclash-intwidth to set that properly.

With these changes, I was able to get it through the Xilinx ISE's synthesizer, and all the way through the rest of the pipeline! As before, the code is on GitHub.

And with this, I am where I was supposed to be a week ago at half-time. I probably won't have time to work on this project next weekend since we'll be travelling; this looks like a good time to take inventory of the project.

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